Human Rights Violations Glossary

A Human Rights Violation is defined as a transgression by the state of any of the fundamental freedoms of any of its citizens, in contravention of its obligation to respect and defend these freedoms. In the Philippines, during Duterte’s rule, many human rights have been violated systematically.


Act by which a person is taken into custody by state authorities to answer for the commission of a crime.

The Duterte administration has also been criticized for employing a supposedly militaristic approach to addressing the public health crisis by deploying camouflaged cops on streets and ordering warrantless arrests of quarantine violators.


Attacking with a devise designed to explode under specified conditions (such as being dropped from airplanes or fused to detonate at a certain time) with objective of killing or destroying weaponry or properties.

The Community Outreach Mercy Mission was scheduled to bring humanitarian aid such as relief goods and psychosocial services to the indigenous people (Agta) in the area who were affected by the January 29, 2022, indiscriminate aerial bombing and strafing incident in Gonzaga. This illegal arrest of a Makabayan Bloc regional coordinator is harassment of government critics in the national election campaign period.


Tearing down of residential houses, often those erected by individuals on property deemed as not belonging to them and usually following a court order.

“How are we going to stay at home when you are about to demolish our houses? How are we going to heed quarantine protocols when people will be left in the streets to live? Demolition must stop,” said Mimi Doringo, Kadamay spokesperson.


The taking away of a person, with reasonable grounds to believe that said person had been taken by authorities or with their connivance, with the latter denying having taken the person in custody.

Reymond was a police asset, she said. He “disappeared like a bubble” in the second year of President Rodrigo Duterte’s brutal campaign against illegal drugs. Reymond was last seen on April 27, 2018. He left their house in Sta. Maria, Bulacan, at 5 pm that day to buy a bottle of soda. Four years later, Marina was still waiting for him to come home.


Forcible transfer of a community which the military considers as dissidents’ sanctuaries to a place usually near military detachments or urban centers.

“Now I will hamlet them. You natives won’t be able to say that you’re being imprisoned. But I will make a secure place for you that will be your territory for the meantime. I will be the one to decide whether you’ll be given arms. No one else will be able to enter. You will be the ones who will guard it,” Duterte also said Tuesday.


Words, gestures, and actions which tend to frighten a person or persons such as through verbal abuse, threats, coercion, surveillance, etc.

In November 2020, KMU filed a complaint before the CHR against the surveillance and harassment of unionists. Men, who claim to be members of the military, would enter the homes and offices of unionists to issue threats to them. The name and pictures of some unionists were even placed in a poster in a village hall, accusing them of recruiting for the NPA.


A crime consisting of the killing of another human being without the attendance of any of the circumstances which qualify the crime of murder.

“As of the end of 2017, the Office of the President reported that in a joint data collected by the Philippine National Police (PNP), Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA), National Bureau of Investigation (NBI), and the Bureau of Customs (BOC), a total of 1,308,078 drug addicts have surrendered to the government, 118, 287 individuals were arrested and at least 3,967 drug personalities have died while 16,355 homicide cases are under investigation.”


Killing of many individuals within the same time span and on the same spot, with those killed helpless or unable to defend themselves. In Philippine usage, three or more persons killed in the above circumstances would generally be considered a massacre.

“The real killers of the 9 Sagay farm workers are out there, its only a matter of time that this murderers will kill again. Justice for the Sagay Massacre victims is clearly will not be by the efforts of the police, but by the people’s movement whose mass actions will hold not just the perpetrators, but the whole list on the echelon of killing machine which is topped by Duterte,” he said.


Execution committed by government agent(s) in contravention or violation of due process of law. Salvaging is equivalent to the international terms extra-judicial and summary executions. Salvaging is a colloquial term derived from the Tagalog word “salbahe” which means “nasty”. Thus, to “salvage” somebody is to “do something nasty to him”; in this sense, to kill him.

After going to the house of Lemita-Evangelista’s uncle, the authorities went to the couple’s hut. Ariel Evangelista was handcuffed while his wife was dragged out of the house. They were brought to a nearby hut. Neighbors heard screams pleading for mercy, and then gunshots. The bodies of the couple were brought to the police vehicle. After the police left, the Evangelistas’ neighbors found the couple’s ten-year old son hiding under the bed.

It was already 7 o’clock in the morning when the couple’s parents were shown the search warrants for them. Their parents were able to recover their bodies from the funeral parlor. They were told that the couples’ heart and lungs had been punctured, and their faces were crushed.


A method of killing or wounding a person by thrusting a pointed weapon.

Together with a neighbor, Echanis was murdered in a house he was renting in Novaliches municipality, Quezon City in the wee hours of the morning of August 10, 2020. He was undergoing medical treatment and was unarmed. He was stabbed repeatedly from the back, was possibly hit in the head many times, and a stab at the aorta killed him.